Analysis of the Themes of the Poem Vanity by Birago Diop
The theme of wisdom of the ancestors is invaluable in the Poem Vanity by Birago Diop
The peom presents ancestors as a weservoir of sound teaching and wisdom which are sufficient to guide their offspring through the challenges of life these teaching and wisdom are describe as "cries" and "wild appeals". with such descriptions the poet suggests that the ancestors are not only in earnest, they are not interested in listening to their voices . The ancestors also leave behind them signs in the natural elements as guides to the living. The poem, therefore, suggests that the only thing that can prevent the living from becoming object of scorn and enjoy the patronage of the ancestors is to heed their words and signs.
The theme of Abandonment of traditional ways or values in the Poem Vanity by Birago Diop
The poem comments on the tendency of African educated elites and other westernized Africans to abandon African wisdom, values and general traditional ways of life. Because many of these people have been led into believing that African ways of life are primitive and barbaric, they embrace foreign.values and become uninterested in their own people's values. The poet condemns this in strong tems, dismissing those culpable in this regard as worthless offspring. While arguing that it is unwise to abandon the traditional ways, the poet also suggests that foreign values will not help. Because the abandonment is intentional, the poet notes that unpleasant experiences may attend it
The Theme of Warning to renegades in the Poem Vanity by Birago Diop
In spite of the dominance or presence of other themes in the poem, the entire poem an be summarized a warming sten to the to renegades. The poem is preoccupied with a warning to those who have chosen not to include the voice of elders, voice of wisdom and voice of the ancestors. of the poet's warning fact that continued will earn nothing Parts of but and reticule. th us when grappling with our self-inflicted wounds, people will'simply laugh at us.
The Theme of pain and misery in the Poem Vanity by Birago Diop
Another important theme of the poem is that of Questions on the poem Vanity and pain. this theme is linked to the vanity of those who consider foreign ways. superior and more desirable than africa's. Their action is cetayn to bring. about some adverse consequence, which include sadness, mockery should and pain. The poet observe that we would become sad complainers, attracting noting but others mockery should we fail to promptly address the renegade tendencies of our fellow westernized aficans. The same thing would happen if we merely lament over our pains and challenges instead of taking the right steps to get round them, which is to heed the wisdom of our forebears. The pain and misery referred to are however not physical ones, but psychological ones. Some words which easily draw attention to the issues of pain and misery in the poem include "tumour", "pitiful anger", "plaintive throats", "complaining", "cry roughly", "weep", "clamouring" and sobbing hearts"
Mood and Tone of the Poem Vanity by Birago Diop
The mood is that of worry with a corresponding tone of concern, condemnation, sarcasm and ridicule. He expresses his worry through a number of rhetorical questions.
Poetic Devices of the Poem Vanity by Birago Diop
The use of Rhetorical question in the Poem Vanity by Birago Diop
presenting his points, the poet extensively makes use of rhetorical question. As a question which does not anticipate any answer from the listener, the poet actually makes a number of statements with Except the each of the as making up the poem is either one long rhetorical
features one or two examples. The first stanza, which one long rhetorical, indirectly states fact if the much needed talk is not openly and promptly done, complaining in the future will not be a sad expedience but a laugh.one. Similarly, Stanza two, another long rhetorical quest that if we merely cry, the result would be the same. Apparently for emphasis, the third stanza features two of such questions without any conditional 'if They will suffice appropriate examples:
What heart will listen to our clamouring?
What ear to our pitiful anger
Which grows in us like a tumour
In the black depth of our plaintive throats?
without the conditional clause, as we have in the previous stanzas, these questions unpretentiously reel the consequences of the current reality, which is that of the voice and sign of our forbare The last stanza returns us to the use of rhetorical question with the conditional clause. in
addition to the two conditional clauses employed in the stanza, two reasons are also advanced The use the fact that neglecting the ways of the ancestors will neither bring us any good norcof this device clearly shows that the poet-speaker is challenging the renegades and trying prick the conscience of other westernized Africans. It also hints at his frustration, especially in the lat
stanza, over prospect of making his target turn over a new leaf.
2. Repetitionin in the Poem Vanity by Birago Diop
The use of repetition in the poem is also quite extensive. The following are good examples:
If we tell gently, gently
If we weep gently, gently
What eyes will watch our large mouths?
Lines 8 and 10
Just as our ears were deaf
Lines 17 and 19
In the air, on the water, where they have traced their signs
Lines 21 and 24
If we cry roughly of our torments
Lines 6 and 28
What heart will listen to our clamouring
Lines 11 and 29
Separately and collectively, these examples have their significance. The idea al "tell in Line 1 suggests a kind of speech that lacks confidence and assertiveness It sugest fear or even inferiority complex in the speaker In the second example, "gently element of oppressive condition. Weeping must have been engendered by an unpleasant If the victim therefore finds it hard to give a full expression to his feelings of pain or discomfort by weeping with restraint, the complaining.much later is certain to invite a mocking laughter repetition of "what eyes will watch our large mouths?" is meant to underscore the fact that people not pay attention to complaints made
at a wrong and belated time. Similarly, "Just as our hear were deaf emphasizes the neglect of the voices of the ancestors as well the signs they leave behind 21 and 24 where we have "in the air, on the water, where they have traced their signs
the present their signs in the natural elements is not only emphasized, the expression itself tries to show can be no pretension about not knowing how to learn of the wisdom or get the necessary from the ancestors by anybody. With this expression, and its repetition, the ubiquity offbese Consequently, finding oneself in trouble as a result of not following them is a self inflicted injury other two examples from Lines 6 and 28 and Line 1 and 29, on the other hand, are significant emphatic purposes. In the collective senses, these repetitions engender lyricism, a typical fcature poetry in Africa. In spite of lack ofrhyme in the poem, there is much musicality about the poem which is made possible by the repetitions. These repetitions are also spaced in such a way that they become monotonous. By driving the message very well and simultaneously providing enteriins
Use of synonyms in the Poem Vanity by Birago Diop
The poet deploys synonyms in the presentation of his ideas. This, in a way, appears intended to minimize repetition. However, it may be a strategy to express different shades of the same idea. Some of the examples are: complaining and clamouring; cries and appeals, cry and weep, heart and ear. These pairs of words are used in similar or related contexts to convey the same notion. Contextually, one is a synonym of the other.
5 Capitalization in the Poem Vanity by Birago Diop
The unusual capitalization of two different words in the poem is another s
stic device. These words are "Dead" (ine 15) and "Sons" (l. 22). The "Dead" under reference applies to the ancestors. Indeed, the aocestors are dead. To qualify as an ancestor in African belief system, a noble death and some other conditions must be met. These ancestors are also conceived as spirits of the dead and are sometimes worshipped. The poet's reference to them with a capital letter therefore meant to venerate them and place them in the divine realm. The implication of this is that their voices signs cannot be or inferior, as many Africans believe. Certainly, this reasoning
these similarly the initial capitalization of the word "Sons". In fact, the poet already describes apply to sons as "blind, deaf and unworthy" 22). The graphological significance of letter s' in-sons.perhaps, lies in the fact that the African sons and daughters who have abandoned the ancestral ways in.favour of western ways are those ordinary people look up to as leaders or for guidance. They are the
powerful, the elite and the privileged.
6. Humour sarcasm in the Poem Vanity by Birago Diop
There is a certain humour or sarcastic tone to the poet's reference to "our large mouths' 8 and l. 10) as well as the description of the complaining voices as "sad" and belonging to "beggars" (l. 4). While these expressions, especially the second one, highlight the misery of those who have neglected the ancestral ways, it also evokes a wry laughter.
Imagery in the Poem Vanity by Birago Diop
The poem contains powerful imagery. For instance, the title “Vanity” refers to the living’s folly over their disregard for the good works of dead ancestors which according to the poet are seen on land, in the water and in the air. Words like “voices of beggars” , “our large mouths”, “our ears were deaf” and “our plaintive throat” are employed as a form of rebuke or ridicule.
The poet also repeats some phrases and images to show how serious he is about the subject-matter of the poem. Examples- “Just as our ears were deaf”, “What eyes”, What ears” “What heart”.
8. Synecdoche in the Poem Vanity by Birago Diop
Another literary device used in the poem is synecdoche, which involves the substitution of a part of something for the whole thing. In the poem, different parts of the human body are variously used to represent persons. Such parts include "ear", "ears", "eyes", "heart" and "hearts". These parts of the body are important for their sensory roles. As they belong to those who are supposed to but would not sympathize with us, using them seems deliberate in order to underscore the insensitivity to "our plight.
Simile in the Poem Vanity by Birago Diop
This is direct comparison using the words “like” or “as”. Example: “What ear to our pitiful anger which grows in us like a tumor”.
Personification in the Poem Vanity by Birago Diop
This figure of speech involves the attribution of human nature or character to animals, inanimate objects, or abstract notions. In Vanity, the poet gives life to dead ancestors through the use of personification. Examples: “When our Dead comes with their Dead, when they have spoken to us in their clumsy voices”.
The Tone the Poem Vanity by Birago Diop
Different tones overlap in the poem. As noted above, there is a sarcastic tone, which engenders humour in the second stanza of the poem. Generally, the poet also employs a tone of lament and warning. Through the rhetorical questions used in the poem, the poet-speaker's lamentation over the unhealthy development among his people filters across. In fact, the poem ends on a note that sounds more of frustration for the speaker. Through the rhetorical questions, which suffuse the poem, the poet speaks to his imaginary colleagues as if warning them to be mindful of the consequences of their action.