Wednesday, 5 September 2018

NCID PhD Fellowships At University Of Michigan in USA 2018

NCID's Statement on
Diversity Research & Scholarship

Scholars who have furthered our understanding of historical and contemporary social issues related to identity, difference, culture, representation, power, oppression, and inequality — as they occur and affect individuals, groups, communities, and institutions — have played a key role in supporting positive social change.
                                               

In keeping with NCID’s commitment to social change, we promote and support diversity research and scholarship. Our framework for diversity scholarship is not limited to particular disciplines, topics, populations, or methodologies. Instead, we articulate guiding principles, defining diversity research and scholarship as work that broadly seeks to:

inform understanding of historical and contemporary issues of social inequality across societal contexts and life domains (e.g., in education, arts and culture, health and mental health, economic and occupational attainment and mobility, infrastructure and community development)
illuminate the challenges and opportunities that arise when individuals from different backgrounds and frames of reference come together in significant societal contexts, such as schools and colleges, neighborhoods and communities, work teams in organizations
inform our understanding of systems of power and privilege and their interactions with groups historically underrepresented and marginalized based on identities including but not limited to race, ethnicity, gender, social/economic class, culture, sexual identity, ability status, and religion
highlight the experiences of disenfranchised populations, whose narratives have traditionally been relegated to the outer periphery of intellectual inquiry and academic scholarship, made invisible through epistemologies and research methods that privilege dominant social groups
foreground the knowledge systems, assets and resources, and cultural strengths of members of historically marginalized communities in order to promote empowerment of individuals and groups from these communities

The National Center for Institutional Diversity (NCID) invites applications from Interested applicants who are looking to pursue a fellowship program in USA.

This is a one-year (12 month) fellowship that is aimed at promoting and supporting the work of outstanding early career diversity scholars.

Course Level: Post-doctorate Fellowships

Eligibility Criteria: Applications are welcome from scholars engaging in diversity scholarship, in any field or department represented in the University of Michigan’s schools and colleges. Applicants’ doctoral degrees should be completed between January 1, 2016 and July 1, 2019.

Also Apply:  Study In USA: Laurels Scholarships For Women In Accounting – 2018
Method of Application: The application for the NCID Postdoctoral Fellowship will require the submission of:

CV;
Statement of proposed scholarship and writing to be conducted during the fellowship year (2-3 pages in pdf format; references, citations, formulas, and graphics do not count toward the page limit);
Statement of contribution explaining how the applicant’s scholarship and demonstrated diversity commitments will contribute to both NCID and a related U-M academic or research unit (1-3 pages in pdf format);
Dissertation abstract;
Writing sample (should be no more than 35 pages in pdf format e.g., sample publication or research paper in progress, journal article, dissertation chapter; references, citations, formulas, and graphics do not count toward the page limit); and
At least two letters of recommendation (maximum of three).
Click Here To Begin Application

Scholarship Application Deadline: December 3, 2018
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MSc Fellowship Program for Junior or Mid-Career Diplomats in USA, 2019

USINDO was founded in 1994 by Indonesians and Americans who had experience in both countries and who saw the need for an organization that would enhance the understanding of Indonesia and the United States in each other’s country, and deepen the relationship between the two countries and their peoples. The Society is incorporated in the District of Columbia and is a tax-exempt charitable and educational organization as described in Section 501(c)3 of the Internal Revenue Code of the United States.            

The USINDO is delighted to announce Edward E. Masters Fellowship for the year 2019. This fellowship is awarded to highly qualified KEMLU junior or mid-career diplomats for programs of study beginning in Fall 2019.
Course Level: Fellowships are available to pursue Master degree programme.
Eligible Countries: This fellowship is available for Indonesian students.
Eligibility Criteria: Applicants must meet the following criteria:
USINDO is now seeking applications from highly qualified KEMLU junior or mid-career diplomats for the programs of study beginning in Fall 2019. Coordinators at Pusdiklat and USINDO provide support for those candidates accepted into the fellowship to select and apply to schools, accept university offers, process visas, and address any issues that may arise through the duration of their studies.
Interested applicants should note that minimum requirements are somewhat flexible. If a candidate does not achieve the minimum requirement in one section of the application but is very strong in others, this will be considered during the selection process. Candidates should not be deterred from applying because they do not meet quantitative minimums outlined in the application.
Method of Application: Applications for the 2019 Intake are due via email to Mr Herry Hotma (at admin.dskld-at-kemlu.go.id) at Pusdiklat no later than 5 September 2018 at 17:00 WIB.
Late applications, including recommendation letters, will not be accepted. It is the responsibility of each applicant to ensure his/her recommendation letters are received before the deadline.
Applications must include the following to be considered complete unless otherwise noted:
Edward E. Masters Application: The application can be downloaded from the USINDO website.Two (2) recommendation letters: Recommendation letters should not be submitted directly by applicants. Letters must be submitted via email by the recommender directly to Pusdiklat at dskld-at-kemlu.go.id. Letters must be from one academic and one professional source using the USINDO Letter of Recommendation Form available at https://goo.gl/Tmycms.Results from the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) or another English language test: A minimum score of 575 or equivalent is required to be considered for the program and entered into the TOEFL preparatory course. Applicants can submit a minimum two years old expired TOEFL or TOEFL Test. But, selected candidates will be required to achieve a minimum of 600 or equivalent following the preparatory course to become an Edward E. Masters Fellow.Results from GRE. Should you already have one, please submit your GRE results. Conditional candidates without a previous GRE result will be required to take the test following the GRE preparatory course. Selected candidates will be required to achieve minimum scores as indicated below following the preparatory course to become an Edward E. Masters Fellow.Transcripts for all university-level work: Unofficial transcripts will suffice for this application. Selected conditional candidates will be required to submit official transcripts.Academic writing sample: Writing samples must be submitted in English, be no more than 900 words in length, written independently (i.e. not a group paper, or with assistance), and analytical.Personal statement: Personal statements must be submitted in English and be no more than 600 words in length. Your personal statement should state clearly your reasons for pursuing higher education in the United States, and discuss the professional, academic and personal experiences that have most contributed to your desire to study international affairs, what you hope to study and why, your career ambitions, and how your program of study relates to them.Curriculum Vitae (CV) or Resume: CVs or resumes must include position and job description, such as responsibilities and accomplishments at each occupation, as well as the length of employment.

Scholarship Link

Scholarship Application Deadline: September 5, 2018
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Tuesday, 21 August 2018

Full-Time Scholarships At Sheffield Hallam University, UK 2018

Sheffield Hallam University (SHU) is a public university in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. It is based on two sites; the City Campus is located in the city centre near Sheffield railway station, while the Collegiate Crescent Campus is about two miles away in the Broomhall Estate off Ecclesall Road in south-west Sheffield.
                                               
The university is the 11th largest university in the UK (out of 167) with 30,815 students (of whom 4,400 are international students), 4,494 staff and 708 courses.

The scholarships will be awarded to well-qualified students who demonstrate academic, personal or professional achievement on their scholarship application form

Applications are invited from International students who are willing to pursue a degree program at the Sheffield Hallam University, UK.

Course Level: Undergraduate and Postgraduate

Eligible Countries: International

Eligibility Criteria: To be eligible to apply for one of these scholarships you must

Be an international or a European Union (non-UK) fee paying student
Postgraduate only – have achieved a minimum 2.1 or equivalent in your honours degree and must meet the English and academic entry requirements for your course.
Undergraduate only – have achieved the English and academic entry requirements for the course. If you are awarded an undergraduate scholarship, you must successfully complete each year of study to continue to receive the fee waiver.
Have accepted an offer for a full-time taught undergraduate or postgraduate course at Sheffield Hallam University.
Be fully self-funding your studies. Please see our frequently asked questions if you are unsure if this applies to you.
Also Apply For:  MSc Scholarships For International Students at Geneva Academy

Method of Application:  To apply for a Transform Together Scholarship for January 2019, please follow these steps

Apply for a course at Sheffield Hallam. If you have not applied for a course, please visit our online prospectus
Check you meet the scholarship eligibility criteria listed above
When you have accepted an offer to study on a course here, apply for a scholarship online using the link below by the closing date of 1 November 2018
Scholarship application form
Send your academic transcripts to globalscholarshiptranscripts@shu.ac.uk by 1 November 2018
You will be notified if you have been successful within one month of the deadline. All decisions are at the University’s discretion and are final.
Also Apply For:  School of Transnational Law Scholarship at Peking University, China 2018
Scholarship link

Scholarship Application Deadline: 1st November 2018 for January 2019 Intake

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Friday, 17 August 2018

MSc Scholarships For International Students at Geneva Academy

The Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights provides post-graduate education, conducts academic legal research and policy.
                                                       
The Geneva Academy offers partial and full scholarships for its LLM in International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights and Master of Advanced Studies in Transitional Justice, Human Rights and the Rule of Law. Partial scholarships cover tuition fees. Full scholarships cover tuition fees and living expenses in Geneva for 10 months.

Course Level:

•  LLM in International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights
•  Master of Advanced Studies in Transitional Justice, Human Rights and the Rule of Law

Eligibility Criteria:

Partial and full scholarships are allocated through a highly competitive process based on academic merit, extra-curricular achievements and the candidate’s financial needs. Applicants from Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United States and Western Europe can only be considered for partial scholarships.

Also Apply For:  Medical Sciences Postgraduate Scholarships At Newcastle University, UK
Method of Application: Applications open 19 November 2019.

Scholarship requests must be submitted with the candidate’s application. When applying, candidates must choose between two tracks: application with scholarship (partial or full) or application without scholarship. If candidates apply to both tracks, their application will be considered under the non-scholarship track. Successful applicants who choose only the non-scholarship track cannot subsequently be considered for a scholarship. Deadline for applications is 1 February 2019.

It is important to visit the official website (link found below) to access the application form and for detailed information on how to apply for this scholarship.

Scholarship link

Scholarship Application Deadline: 1 Feb 2019 (annual)
Course starts September 2019
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Monday, 23 July 2018

Fully-Funded Scholarships At University Of Witwatersrand in South Africa, 2018

The University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, is a multi-campus South African public researchuniversity situated in the northern areas of central Johannesburg. It is more commonly known as Wits University or Wits
The University Of Witwatersrand – South Africa is offering 14 Fully-funded Scholarships to Interested applicants who are looking to pursue a degree program at the Institution.
This scholarship prorgam will be given to students in the following fields:
  • MSc in Development Planning
  • Masters in Urban Studies in the fields of
    • Housing and Human Settlements
    • Sustainable Energy Efficient Cities
    • Urban Politics and Governance
    • Urban Management
Course Level: Masters
Eligible Countries: African Countries
Eligibility Criteria:
  • Applicants must be Africans
  • Applicants must have applied or applying to University Of Witwatersrand – South Africa
  • Applicants must have completed their bachelors degree program
  • Applicants must be fluent in English Language
Method of Application: Click Here To Apply
Scholarship Application Deadline: September 30th 2018
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MSc Scholarships at NTI Hsing Yun Education Foundation in Australia, 2018

The new Hsing Yun Education Foundation (HYEF) scholarship for international students is now available at Nan Tien Institute (NTI) to study in Australia. These scholarships assist high achieving international students to undertake Applied Buddhist Studies programs.
Course Level: Scholarships are available to chase Master degree programme.
Eligible Countries: These scholarships are available for international students.
Eligibility Criteria: Applicants must meet the following criteria:
The applicant must have been admitted or been offered admission to one of the following Applied Buddhist Studies courses at NTI:
  • Master of Arts (Applied Buddhist Studies)
  • Graduate Diploma of Applied Buddhist Studies
  • Graduate Certificate in Applied Buddhist Studies
Method of Application: A complete International Scholarship Application Form and all the supporting documentation should be emailed to scholarships-at-nantien.edu.au by the closing date. We cannot accept late submissions.
CHECKLIST
  • Letter of recommendation
  • Personal statement
  • Details of other awards or scholarships, if any
  • Any other documents to support your application
  • Sign the declaration on this application form

Application Form

Scholarship Link

Scholarship Applications Deadline: October 18, 2018
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Wednesday, 30 May 2018

Merit-Based Scholarship at Mississippi College in USA, 2018

Mississippi College is a Christian university located in Clinton, Mississippi, just west of the capital city of Jackson. Founded in 1826, MC is the second-oldest Baptist-affiliated college in the United States and the oldest college in Mississippi. With more than 5,000 students, Mississippi College is the largest private university in the state.
                                                             
Merit-Based Scholarship at Mississippi College in USA, 2018
The Mississippi College is inviting applications for OGE Merit-Based Scholarships. The scholarships are available for international students who are classified as sophomores, juniors, or seniors in their undergraduate academic program at Mississippi College after they have completed their first two semesters of academic study.
                           
Course Level: Scholarships are available for pursuing undergraduate programme.

Eligible Nationalities: Scholarships are open to international students.

Eligibility Criteria: Qualified applicants must have a GPA of 2.5 or higher in the previous semester, and students must have at least one volunteer event to report on the application.

Method of Application: The application is two pages, so be sure to complete the entire process. Once it is completed, please send the entire application complete with your personal essay. Once the application is submitted, you will receive a confirmation of receipt. If you do not receive a confirmation, please call Ms. Phala Echols at the Office of Global Education to be sure your application was received.
Also Apply For:  Government of Poland Undergraduate, MSc & PhD Scholarship for African Students, 2017

The Merit-Based Scholarship Application should be downloaded and completed electronically.
Scholarship Link

Scholarship Application Deadline: July 13, 2018
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Saturday, 24 March 2018

Analysis of Patience Swift's The Last Good Man


The Last Good Man by Patience Swift

Description

Sam is a loner, but he likes that. He enjoys his own company, and the company of nature. His life is shaken up when he finds a girl washed up on the beach. He takes her in and looks after her. Isobel is also alone, back in the village to deal with her mothers estate. She has been looking for love that she has read about, but without success. She crosses Sams path too, and things start to look up. Sam takes in the two ladies and his life changes for good.

This is a short book. It is descriptive and enjoyable. It is an easy read, with short, simple sentences. The book flowed and was a lovely read, even though it is a tragic read. It is beautiful read. Swift writes gorgeous characters, and wonderful scenery. Sam was sweet and caring. Isobel was vulnerable, with a troubled streak. The girl is silent, but was happy and a lovely read.

Analysis

THEMES OF THE BOOK
 DEATH: In the book The Last Good Man, the theme of death is one of the key prominent. The author Patient swift uses the theme of death to drive home her point and also to open another facet in her literary work. The book opens with the death of a man in the sea. Subsequently, the death of Isobels mother was mentioned and more so was the death of Isobels father that in turn reconnected us back to the Sams father that died in the sea and also his mother that eventually followed. The theme of death in the book was crowned at its tail end with the unfortunate death of Sam.

LONELINESS: The theme of loneliness finds its expression in each and every character featured in the book. Sams loneliness got to the top that he didnt have a choice that he started talking to the living furniture in the house. Sam was so lonely that when birds fly in is roof he finds himself communicating with them. Isobel was not left out as she lived an isolated live devoid of parental care, love and affection. These we clearly saw in the book when Isobel left her home in her teenage age. More so, it was recorded in the book that loneliness and the want for attention meticulously claimed the life of Isobels mother, Isobels father and Sams mother. The little girl was not spared from the state of loneliness as she got her own portion in the abandoned resources of loneliness this was seen in the book when the little girl was abandoned to die in the sea without anybody to talk, play with or befriend.

MAN AGAINST SOCIETY: The theme is basically outstanding in the book as we see individual (man) trying to fight against society norms and society in turns fight back. Isobel was treated with scorn because she dares to go against set standard in the society .this she did when she disobeyed her mother constituency by hanging out with friends in odd places and reading odd books. When fought back, Isobel had to leave the village in search of a common society that will accommodate her gestures. Sam on the other hand fought against the society and against the machinery of the state when the state fought back it led to Sams death.

Characters/ Characterization

Sam
Sam is very huge, He alone at the sea side. His life changes when Isobel and the silent girl came into his life. The book revolves around him, as he is a round character.
Isobel
Isobel, is a girl from a broken home that lacks marital bliss, open communication and companionship. A product of divorced couples, she embarks on a search for true love that she has so passionately read about from the bookshelf.
The lost Girl
 She is a nine-year old girl who is the unfathomable mysterious element in the novel. She was found by Sam on the beach, half dead. She is a silent intruder.
Marion
Marion is Isabel’s childhood friend who got married to a local fisherman. She is happily married with 3 Children.



SETTING: The setting of the book is basically traditional and remote in its analysis in other words the book uses the traditional literary setting in a spurious manner. The location of the book is founded on a village platform which is rural area.
 
POINT OF VIEW: The point of view used in the book is basically a third persons perspective/omnificent point of view this we clearly saw in the book as the author tried to distant her involvement in the characterisations by so doing the author made us to not only to see what she sees but also what she feels in cause of writing the book. Although at the ending, it tends to be a mixed up or a prose argon [point of view argon].  

SUSPENSE: This is a narrative technique that keeps a reader in a turbulence state or desirous state of wanting for more. This device was perfectly used by the author in other to drive home her point of keeping her readers on their toes for the love of the love of the book. Each character used in the book were placed in such a way that the readers squeak to know what will happen next to either character A OR B

Symbolism
The novel has a plethora of symbols that presents level of deeper understanding and interpretation of work by any critical analysis..They include
Death
The image of the sea and it's complete supremacy against the will of man.
True love is seen as unattainable ideal, no matter how we pust to shove and acquire it.
Nature is seen therapeutic remedy for troubled soul while the staggered life of disillusion and communality is seen as a draw back to the health and the soul. Sam was fine living by himself, for himself until he got involved with human society and civilization.

Language
The language is easy, vivid and strong narrative of presentations of events and picturesque of places like the side of the sea where Sam's home is situated.

Narrative Technique
The story is told in two narrative forms : third person narrative style and first person narrative techniques towards the end part of the .This is done for a more dramatic effect and attempt to create a distinctive style for the author.

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Wednesday, 28 February 2018

The School Boy by William Blake : Themes, Imagery And Symbolism


The School Boy by William Blake : Themes, Imagery And Symbolism

Themes.
The loss of Innocence.
Entrapment, Confinement.
Parental care and Authority.
The Stand point of Children.
Imagery and Symbolism.
Structure.
                                                     
         The School Boy by William Blake Themes, Imagery And Symbolism
                       
"The School Boy" is a 1789 poem by William Blake and published as a part of his poetry collection entitled "Songs of Innocence."
The poem is written in the pastoral tradition that focuses on the downsides of formal learning. It considers how going to school on a summer day "drives all joy away".The boy in this poem is more interested in escaping his classroom.

Themes

1. The Loss of innocence

Innocence is presented here as freedom from constraint and self-consciousness. The child starts out taking pleasure in an uninhibited life, full of trust in his world, both natural and human. The fragility of this state is clear from images like blossoms' and tender plants .. strip'd'. The child soon experiences the woe' in life and of learning the possibility of failure and betrayal.
The poem begins in Stanza I with the poet giving us a pastoral image of the innocence of nature reminiscent of that in The Introduction from Innocence, some critics have pointed out the similarity of The distant huntsman winds his horn in this poem with Piping down the valleys wild in The Introduction of Innocence. The poem gives us an image of rising with the company of many natural joys, not just the huntsman but birds sing on every tree and the sky-lark sings with me. It is in Stanza II that we see the oppression of the natural by authority typical of Experience and continued through the rest of the poem. This stanza compares the pastoral imagery of Stanza I with that of the cruel eye outworn, and the sighing and dismay of the children in the school room. The contrast is heightened by the similarity of the opening lines, both ending in a summer morn and the way this forces a similar rhyme across the two, and the similar metre and beginning of O! what sweet company. ending Stanza I and O! it drives all joy away; in the second line of Stanza II. The similarities enhance the differences in the two images and show childhood in the two states of pastoral innocence and the experience in restrictive school days leaving the reader with a feeling for the loss of youth.

2. Entrapment, Confinement

Images of confinement abound in the Songs. Blake the revolutionary opposed the coercive strictures of the Establishment' the state, organised religion etc. - which sought to quantify and rule all aspects of human behaviour. Here, education is formalised and restrictive, actually stunting the development of those it claimed to nurture. Prison imagery is seen in the cruel eye' of the overseer and the cage' of the bird.
Images of confinement is further, abound in the Songs. Blake the revolutionary opposed the coercive strictures of the Establishment' the state, organised religion etc. - which sought to quantify and rule all aspects of human behaviour. Here, education is formalised and restrictive, actually stunting the development of those it claimed to nurture. Prison imagery is seen in the cruel eye' of the overseer and the cage' of the bird.
Blake saw the natural child as an image of the creative imagination which is the human being's spiritual core. He was concerned about the way in which social institutions such as the school system and parental authority crushed the capacity for imaginative vision. The child's capacity for happiness and play are expressions of this imagination.

3. Parental care and authority

In Blake's work, parents are often perceived as inhibiting and repressing their children. Their own fears and shame are communicated to the next generation through the parental desire to protect' children from their desires. According to Blake, parents misuse care' to repress children, rather than setting the children free by rejoicing in, and safeguarding, their capacity for play and imagination. Here, parents are seen as colluding with a repressive system; it is as though they are entrapped by a way of seeing the world and transmit that entrapment to their offspring by perpetuating the system.
Stanzas V and VI are appeals to the alternate authority of the parents to realise the predicament of the child and the dangers in this suppression of natural learning. Stanza V gives us a strong image of nature destroyed with :-

if buds are nipd,
And blossoms blown away,
And if the tender plants are stripd

4. The Standpoint of children

Is the child born free and good, as Rousseau believed, or born sinful, as the Calvinist Christians believed?
Or is this opposition the result of fallen human beings' inability to recognise that the capacity for good and evil both belong to humanity?
Blake's idea that a young child can clearly see God echoes the Romantic sensibility articulated by Wordsworth, that children had an existence in heaven before the commencement of their earthly life. 

Imagery and symbolism

This poem depends upon three inter-related images, the schoolboy, the bird and the plant. All three are dependent upon, or vulnerable to, the way in which they are treated by human beings.

Schoolboy - The image of the child here focuses on his nature as free and unfettered. He is associated with the spring as a time for growth, freshness and playfulness. As such, the child represents the playful, free nature of the creative imagination. According to Blake, this was fettered by subjection to the demands of a system which denies the validity of imagination. In The School Boy, formal education involves subjection to a cruel' eye and cruelty in Blake is always linked with the denial of imaginative freedom and of the spiritual self.

Bird - The bird imagery allows for the comparison between the free child being imprisoned in school and the songbird being caged. The unity between bird and boy is emphasised in stanza one. The sky-lark sings with me'. This inverts our expectations. We tend to think of the sky-lark as the primary singer, with whom people might sing along. Here, however, it is the child who is the first singer. It is as natural to him as to the lark, as though he were another bird.

Birds are also images of freedom. Their capacity for flight and for song makes them appropriate images of creative imagination, since poets sing' and imagination is often linked with the notion of flight. The schoolboy in school and the bird in the cage are, therefore, seen as equivalents not only at the natural level, under physical subjection, but at the spiritual level, too. Both represent the caging and entrapping of imaginative vision.

Plant - The image of the plant applies to the school boy's present and future. The young plant, like the young child, is tender and vulnerable. The way it (and the child) is treated at this stage dictates its later capacity to bear fruit. Just as food gathered in autumn is necessary to ensure survival through the winter, so experiences of joy and the freedom of the imagination are necessary for a person's capacity to live well and survive the inevitable griefs' of life.

Structure

poem is a dramatic monologue, written in rhyme scheme (ababb).
It contains six stanzas of 30 lines. It examines the element of nature in proferring solution to learning and creative development.

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The Pulley by George Herbert; Analysis of the Poem; About the Poet; Structure of the Poem

The Pulley by George Herbert 

When God at first made man,
Having a glass of blessings standing by,
Let us, said he, pour on him all we can:
Let the worlds riches, which dispersed lie,
Contract into a span.

So strength first made way;
Then beauty flowed; then wisdom, honour, pleasure.
When almost all was out, God made a stay,
Perceiving that, alone of all his treasure,
Rest in the bottom lay.

For, if I should, said he,
Bestow this jewel also on my creature,
He would adore my gifts instead of me,
And rest in Nature, not the God of Nature:
So should both losers be.

Yet let him keep the rest,
But keep them with repining restlessness:
Let him be rich and weary, that at least,
If goodness lead him not, yet weariness
May toss him to my breast.

Analysis

The poem The Pulley illustrates the relationship between God and man especially his benevolence to man. The first stanza describes how God made man and blessed him with worldly riches: When God at first made man, Having a glass of blessings standing by. The stanza also portrays the concept of Trinity as seen in the Biblical creation story in Genesis: Let us, said he pour on him all we can (Note the use of the phrase Let us).
In the second stanza, God actually poured his blessings of strength, beauty, wisdom, honour and pleasure on man but withheld one important blessing- The Gift of Rest: Perceiving that, alone of all his treasure, Rest in the bottom lay.
In the third stanza, God gave his reason for withholding the gift of rest from man. He withdrew this blessing because he felt giving man the gift of rest would make him conceited or excessively proud and man may not worship him: He would adore my gifts instead of me, And rest in nature, not the God of Nature. With the withdrawal of rest from man, man is thrown into perpetual restlessness so that he can always remember his creator whether as a result of goodness or weariness: Let him be rich and weary, that at least, If goodness lead him not, yet weariness may toss him to my breast

Themes

i.          Gods supremacy and love for mankind. He blessed man with many gifts but shows his supremacy over man by withholding the gift of rest.
ii.         Mans dependency on God.
iii.        The insatiable nature of mans needs. This throws man in a perpetual state of restlessness, anxiety and worry.

Poetic Devices

Looking for synecdoche and paradox in George Herbert's "The Pulley."

As I understand it, paradox is a statement that at first seems contradictory but then it starts to make sense.  Given that definition, the only line that seems to be paradoxical is "Let him be rich and weary, that at least."

Synecdoche is a really tough concept for me.  It's defined as the use of part of a thing to stand for the whole (she lent a hand).

1. The pulley as we all know is a simple machine which is useful for lifting heavy loads. It is a device which enables a person to pull and control  the rope at the end of which is the load to be lifted. The pulley represents God's loving nature by which he draws mankind close to his bosom where man can find rest. It is the synecdoche-a trope which represents the entire divine life force by which God the Creator holds on to and controls his creation, Man.

2. Similarly, "breast" - the last word of the poem - is another synecdoche. "Breast" represents not just the physical bosom of God but represents the comfort and consolation which only God and not the secular blessings can give Man.  It is a 'part' which represents the 'whole' of the goodness of God.

The Paradox, of course, lies in the fact that God who is so benevolent and generous and fills Man to the overflowing with all the wonderful secular gifts,

Let us (said he) poure on him all we can :
Let the worlds riches, which dispersed lie,
Contract into a span.

So strength first made a way ;
Then beautie flowd, then wisdome, honour, pleasure :

withholds from him the most precious gift - the jewel - rest.

The fact that God did not give 'rest,' the most precious gift to man seemingly detracts from his benevolent and generous nature, but God has done this for Man's own good -  to compel him always to worship and adore only God and to seek comfort and solace only in God's bosom and not in "Nature":

For if I should (said he)
Bestow this jewell also on my creature,
He would adore my gifts in stead of me,
And rest in Nature, not the God of Nature :


By denying man the most precious jewel, "rest," God has not been unkind to Man but he has only been all the more good to him. It is this denial of "rest" which acts as the "pulley" which always draws restless Man to God and also helps God to keep ambitious and wayward  Man under His control.  If God had not been kind enough to deny Man "rest" then Man would not seek God and he would lose eternity and consequently God would also lose Man to the eternal fires of hell: "So both should losers be. Paradoxically, God the 'giver' by refusing to give the most precious gift proves himself to be all the more generous and kind.
Another paradox can be found in the line, "Rest in the bottom lay." The most precious gift is at the bottom of the "glass" and not at the top.

Structure of the Poem

The poem does not hold a specific rhythm. It has 4 stanzas of the poem, the first and the last lines of each stanza are of equal trimeter but the second, third, and fourth are not clearly equal in each stanza.
The poem The Pulley by George Herbert has a to total of 20 lines, each line with end rhyme pattern of ABABA, CDCDC. The first stanza is  about the reason God endowed man during creation, the second stanza showed all the endowments, the third stanza is about the reason God gave man a companion, the last stanza is about how all the blessings and possessions given will lead man back to Gods bosom.

About the Poet

George Herbert was born in to a noble Welsh family on April 3, 1593. His poetry was influenced chiefly by the puritanical stance of the 17th century in which he was born. After graduation from the University, he was ordained as a priest and served in a little church in Bemerton. His major collection of poems titled The Temple was published after his death.
George Herbert was an Anglican priest, theologian, and poet. Born into a wealthy family, he was very well educated and attended Trinity College in Cambridge. He briefly served in Parliament in 1624-25. In his mid-thirties, he gave up his secular career and was ordained a priest in the Church of England. He served as rector of a small parish 75 miles southwest of London and was known for his dedication to his parishioners and those who were needy and ill.
Herbert was a remarkable preacher and a brilliant writer of religious poems, many of which were put into popular hymns. He wrote in Greek, Latin, and English. Known for his humility, quiet devotion and saintly character, Herbert died on the 1st of March 1633.

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Thursday, 22 February 2018

Analysis of A Raising in the Sun by Lorraine Vivian Hansberry


A Raising in the Sun by Vivian Lorraine Hansberry

A Raisin in the Sun by Lorraine Hansberry is a play that displays housing discrimination in Chicago during the 1950s. Housing discrimination was partially an effect of the Great Migration. This was an event during the 1950s that resulted in about six million African Americans migrating from the south to the north, Midwest, and west regions of the United States. This caused the population of black people in major northern cities to increase rapidly. They are then only able to live in certain neighborhoods, which keeps their communities segregated.

Analysis

According to Lorraine Hansberrys stage directions at the beginning of the play, the action occurs sometime between the end of World War II and the 1950s. The play is set in an urban ghetto and deals with the problems encountered by a poor black family as it tries to cope with the realities of life on Chicagos South Side. It reveals the devastating effects of poverty and oppression on the African American family. Even before the play begins, Hansberrys stage directions, both in tone and substance, suggest the extent of that devastation. The furnishings in the Younger familys apartment, she says, are tired, and the once loved couch upholstery has to fight to show itself from under acres of dollies and couch covers. The very environment in which the Youngers live mirrors the struggle for survival that is waged daily in this household.

As the play progresses, the frustration born of this poverty and oppression mounts. The anger and hostility that it spawns begin to erode the foundations of the family structure. This erosion begins early in the play, exhibiting itself in the strained relations between Walter Lee and his wife Ruth as they argue over the disposition of money coming from insurance on Walters father. Walter Lee wants to use the money to purchase a liquor store. He is convinced that such a business venture will be his ticket out of the ghetto. His marriage threatens to collapse under the constant bickering. Ruth, having just discovered that she is pregnant, contemplates abortion to avoid bringing a new life into this hostile, poverty-ridden environment.

As the family anticipates the arrival of the insurance check, the tension grows and Walter becomes more agitated. He is resentful of his sister, whose medical-school expenses, he thinks, will consume money that he might otherwise use to finance his liquor store. When the check finally arrives and he finds that Mama Younger has used part of the money to make a down payment on a new house and plans to use the rest for Beneathas medical-school expenses, Walter explodes, spending his days driving around town and his nights brooding in the local bar.

When Mama begins to understand the depth of damage to Walter Lees feelings and manhood, she turns over the rest of the money to him to do with as he pleases. She makes one request, however: that he put aside the money for Beneathas education. Still pursuing his dream, however, Walter gives Willie, one of his friends, the money to purchase the liquor store for him. Willie absconds with the money, dashing Walter Lees hopes and dreams as well as those of the entire Younger family.

In an effort to recover his losses, Walter Lee decides to accept the money that has been offered earlier by their prospective white neighbors as a bribe to keep the Younger family out of an all-white neighborhood. In the last scene of the play, however, under the watchful eye of his son, Walter finds the courage to reject the offer. The family takes its leave of its ghetto apartment and heads for its new home and anticipated better life.

Form and Content

Written just as the Civil Rights movement began to get underway, this play (and the motion picture made from it in 1960) made an important statement regarding race relations. Lorraine Hansberry, coming as she did from an affluent African American family, had experienced discrimination in her own childhood when her father moved the family out of the Chicago ghetto to a home in Englewood, Illinois. She also had strong opinions about the position of black women in American society, who are represented to a great extent by the character of Beneatha in this play.

Additionally, Langston Hughess poem A Dream Deferred must be considered seminal in understanding the play. In it the poet asks, What happens to a dream deferred? Does it dry up like a raisin in the sun?. . . or does it explode? and Hansberry has successfully dramatized various human reactions to such deferment. The time in the play spans only a few weeks, but the dreams held by each of the characters have roots that reach far back. As the play begins, Lena is expecting a check of $10,000 as beneficiary of her husbands life insurance, and each character sees that money as the key that will unlock the future.

Most volatile about getting control of the money is Walter Lee, who wants to invest (with two other men) in a liquor store and become an independent businessman. He represents the dream that is ready to explode. In the first scene, he makes his attitude very clear when he asks his wife Ruth to persuade his mother to give him the money, and he becomes very upset with her when she insists that it is Lenas money to do with as she likes.

Walter Lees frustration with his life causes him to project his predicament on his wife, as a representative of all black women. As he puts it, Man say I got to change my life. Im choking to death, baby! And his woman sayyour eggs is getting cold!

Lena Younger, knowing that she and her husband never realized their dreams, has accepted life as God has willed it. In the words of the poem, she has crusted and sugared overlike a syrupy sweet. Because of the insurance money, however, she believes that she has been given a second chance at her dream of improving the lives of everyone in her family by moving out of the ghetto. Furthermore, because she is very religious, she disapproves of the idea of a liquor store for her son. Representing the older black woman who heads the family, Lena is a loving but quietly controlling matriarch.

The early-morning scene that opens the play illustrates clearly the physical conditions in which the Youngers live. The apartment is clean but very crowded; Travis sleeps on a couch in the living room, and the family shares a bathroom with other tenants in the building. Quite soon, Ruth reveals that she is pregnant, and her con-sideration of an abortion strengthens Lenas resolve regarding the use of the money.

Beneathas dream of becoming a doctor is quite concrete; she has had it since adolescence. Unlike her brother, she does not solicit her mothers financial assistance. Representing the newly emancipated black woman (in the image of the playwright), Beneatha gives the impression that she will not marry for security or surrender her free-thinking ideas. At one point, Lena actually slaps Beneatha and insists that she affirm her belief in God, but it is clear that the young woman acquiesces only out of respect for her mother. She will march to the beat of her own drummer.

Symbolism, Imagery, Allegory

Plant
The plant that Mama keeps near the apartments sole window is barely surviving because it lacks adequate nourishment. Sound like anyone else we know? Yet she is completely dedicated to the plant and lovingly tends it every single day in the hopes that it will one day be able to flourish. Gosh. Sound like her behavior towards anyone else? This is by far the plays most overt symbol; the plant acts as a metaphor for the family.

Sunlight
Hansberry writes about sunlight and how the old apartment has so little of it. The first thing Ruth asks about in Act Two, Scene One is whether or not the new house will have a lot of sunlight. Sunlight is a familiar symbol for hope and life, since all human life depends on warmth and energy from the sun.

Cockroaches, rats and other lovely creatures.

These creatures heavily reinforce the Younger familys undesirable living situation.

 SETTING

Where It All Goes Down
The Youngers' apartment in the slums of Chicago's Southside, 1950s
The Apartment

Hansberry welcomes us into the tiny apartment of the Younger family. This place is really cramped, especially with five people living in it. On stage we see the kitchen, which is so small that it's more like a closet. Most of the play's action goes down in the living room, which also serves as the dining room and Travis's makeshift bedroom.

There's access to two bedrooms on opposite sides of the apartment (one room shared by Mama and Beneatha, the other by Walter and Ruth). The bathroom is out in the hall; the Youngers are forced to share it with their neighbors, the Johnsons. So, yeah, you get the point this place is small!

The incredibly close quarters of the Youngers' apartment definitely adds to the high tensions that run throughout the play. It's a wonder the family doesn't fight more than they already do, considering how on top of each other they're forced to live.

The tininess of the apartment definitely has a major effect on the action of the play early on. When Ruth finds out she's pregnant, she seriously considers having an abortion. If the baby is born, there just won't be anywhere for it to sleep. This thought is just too much for Mama, however. When she realizes what her daughter-in-law is considering, she marches straight out and purchases a new setting for her family to live in the house in Clybourne Park.

Be sure to look at set design pictures in order to better visualize the space. To see how professional Scene Designers have brought the Younger apartment to life onstage, look online. (Or better yet, attend a theatre production.) Here's an example.

Southside Chicago

The neighborhood which the Youngers live in is particularly significant because, during the 1950s, it was primarily a poor neighborhood inhabited mainly by African Americans. Many blacks ended up in Chicago's Southside after migrating from the South, looking for work and seeking to escape racial discrimination.

Things were definitely better in the North on a lot of levels, but blacks still faced many challenges because of their race. As A Raisin in the Sun shows, white society made it very hard for African Americans to escape the cramped, vermin-infested apartment buildings of Chicago's Southside. There may not have been any law officially segregating the city, but unofficial segregation was still going on.

The 1950s

The exact year is never specified, but the play takes place in the 1950s. Probably, the most significant thing to think about as far as the time period goes is the status of race issues. A lot of progress had been made by this point in American history, but as A Raisin in the Sun  shows, there was still a long, long way to go.

The 1950s was a sort of turning point in America, the decade that brought the beginning of the Civil Rights Movement. During much of the 1950s, the South was segregated by racist Jim Crow laws. And, as we point out in our entry on the Southside, many African Americans faced unofficial racial barriers in the North. The racial tensions of the time period definitely fuel the conflicts of the play.

Beneatha's character, in particular, is grounded in the time period, as she deals with very timely socio-political issues. In a way, though, she is totally ahead of her time. We have no doubt that if Beneatha was still in the US around in the 1960s she would definitely be marching with Dr. King. Beneatha is also head of her time with the idea that African Americans should be more in touch their African roots. This became a major movement among black Americans later on in the '60s. With the character of Beneatha, Hansberry predicted (and possibly helped to spark) some major movements in American history.

 GENRE

Family Drama, Realism, African-American Literature
A Raisin in the Sun was part of a broader movement to portray the lives of ordinary, working-class African-Americans. The genre of Realism captures ordinary life, and A Raisin in the Sun definitely fits this description. Dreams of buying a house, making some money in business, and going to medical school are dreams shared by millions of working-class Americans. And if you cant figure out why this play is a Family Drama, then we seriously screwed up our job.

TONE

Take a story's temperature by studying its tone. Is it hopeful? Cynical? Snarky? Playful?
Alternates between Ironic and Somber
Life is rough for the Younger family, and Hansberry's use of somber tone is appropriate to that. At the same time, however, she injects a heavy dose of irony and sarcasm. Did you notice how Hansberry writes "Drily" in a lot of the line directions? (Wait, is that just "dryly" spelled a different way? Yes, it is.) The Youngers have a bite in how they talk; there's a fun tongue-in-cheek kind of feel, especially in Walter and Beneatha's sibling chats.

One of the single most ironic moments in the play, however, might be when Mr. Lindner explains that the people he represents have worked hard to achieve their dreams. In that single scene, the characters don't notice the irony so much as the audience does. It's Hansberry at her finest exposing how the American Dream can ring hollow for black Americans.

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